PDA

View Full Version : Hatshepsut: The forgotten Egyptian Queen.


Catapharact
20-10-05, 16:49
Well when we think of influential Egyptian Female rulers, usually, we think of Nefertiti or Cleopetra. However, little do people know Hatshepsut was near to the position of a male Pharoh then either of them.


Hatshepsut

"Born in the 15th century BC, Hatshepsut, daughter of Tuthmose I and Aahmes, both of royal lineage, was the favorite of their three children. When her two brothers died, she was in the unique position to gain the throne upon the death of her father. To have a female pharaoh was unprecedented, and probably most definitely unheard of as well. When Tuthmose I passed away, his son by the commoner Moutnofrit, Tuthmose II, technically ascended the throne. For the few years of his reign, however, Hatshepsut seems to have held the reins. From markings on his mummy, archaeologists believe Tuthmose II had a skin disease, and he died after ruling only three or four years. Hatshepsut, his half sister and wife, had produced no offspring with him (her daughter Nefrure was most likely the daughter of her lover Senmut), although he had sired a son through the commoner Isis. This son, Tuthmose III, was in line for the throne, but due to his age Hatshepsut was allowed to reign as queen dowager.



Hatshepsut was not one to sit back and wait for her nephew to age enough to take her place. As a favorite daughter of a popular pharaoh, and as a charismatic and beautiful lady in her own right, she was able to command enough of a following to actually take control as pharaoh. She ruled for about 15 years, until her death in 1458 BC, and left behind more monuments and works of art than any Egyptian queen to come.


Hatshepsut, as a female, had many obstacles to overcome. There was always a threat of revolt, especially as her bitter nephew came of age. Using propaganda and keen political skills, she deftly jumped each hurdle she faced. To quell the fears of her people, she became a "king" in all statuary and relief during her reign. She even dressed in the traditional garb of male rulers: the shendyt kilt, the nemes headdress with its uraeus and khat headcloth, and the false beard. Although there were no wars during her reign, she proved her sovereignty by ordering expeditions to the land of Punt, in present-day Somalia, in search of the ivory, animals, spices, gold and aromatic trees that Egyptians coveted. These expeditions are well documented in the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the walls of her temple. With these inscriptions are included incised representations of the journey, including humorous images of the Puntites and their queen, at whom the Egyptians no doubt looked while restraining a giggle; the queen has folds of fat hanging over her knees and elbows, her back is crooked and she has an aquiline nose. To the short, thin Egyptian she was probably quite a sight. Hatshepsut, in a final bid to be recognized as a legitimate queen, constructed a fabulous temple in the Valley of the Kings, of all places, by a tall plateau at Deir-el-Bahri, across the Nile from Thebes.

Hatshepsut was a master politician, and an elegant stateswoman with enough charisma to keep control of an entire country for twenty years. Her charisma and experience could carry her only so far, however. She used two devices to ensure the legitimacy of her position. The first was to emphasize not only her relationship to Tuthmose I, but her favor from that popular ruler. She claimed to have been handpicked by her father, above her two brothers and her half-brother. In her temple are written the words of Khnum, the divine potter who sculpted the forms of the gods:

I will make you to be the first of all living creatures, you will rise as king of Upper and of Lower Egypt, as your father Amon, who loves you, did ordain.

This assertion has validity, as other texts indicate. Her second conceit was more doubtful, however: she claims a direct divine lineage. As in the previous passage, she claims Amon is her father. On the walls of her tomb is inscribed a story detailing the night the Theban god Amon-Re approached Aahmes in the form of Tuthmose I.

Amon took the form of the noble King Tuthmose and found the queen sleeping in her room. When the pleasant odours that proceeded from him announced his presence she woke. he gave her his heart and showed himself in his godlike splendour. When he approached the queen she wept for joy at his strength and beauty and he gave her his love...

These propaganda worked well to cement Hatshepsut's position. But as Tuthmose III grew, her sovereignty grew tenuous. He not only resented his lack of authority, but no doubt harbored only ill will towards his step-mother's consort Senmut. Senmut originally intended to be buried in the tomb he designed for Hatshepsut, but was actually buried nearby in his own tomb. Not long after his death, however, his sarcophagus was completely destroyed. The hard stone that had been carved for his funerary coffin was found in over 1,200 pieces. His mummy was never found. Hatshepsut's mummy was likewise stolen and her tomb destroyed. Only one of the canopic jars was found, the one containing her liver. After her death, it is presumed that Tuthmose III ordered the systematic erasure of her name from any monument she had built, including her temple at Deir-el-Bahri. Since most of the images of her were actually males, it was convenient to simply change the name "Hatshepsut" to "Tuthmose" I, II or III wherever there was a caption. Senmut's name was also removed. Whether Tuthmose killed Hatshepsut, Senmut and Nofrure is questionable but likely. Since he paid little respect to her in death, it is quite possible he paid even less in life.

While this account is the most accepted of theories, the Hatshepsut Problem was a source of endless debate near the turn of the twentieth century. The archeaologists Edouard Naville and Kurt Sethe went head-to-head on the order of rule between the three Tuthmoses and Hatshepsut. Since it is generally assumed that if one ruler's name is replaced with another, the second ruler is in power at the time, a confusing problem exists. Theoretical timelines indicate that the succession followed this sequence:


1. Tuthmose I
2. Tuthmose III
3. Tuthmose III and Hatshepsut, together
4. Tuthmose III alone
5. Tuthmose I and Tuthmose II
6. Tuthmose II alone
7. Hatshepsut and Tuthmose III
8. Tuthmose III alone


This sequence seems as illogical as it is complicated, and only after the discovery of the tomb of Ineni, the architect of the tomb of Tuthmose I. His description follows a more intuitive sequence, and disproves the previously-held belief that only Tuthmose III would put his name in Hatshepsut's place.

Not only was Hatshepsut's name erased, but some of her monuments were destroyed. She built two obelisks of red granite, the largest built to that point. This was a continuation of the works of her father, who was not able to complete all his construction plans. Her name appeared on the obelisks, but instead of toppling them, Tuthmose III ordered them sheathed in masonry. Their gilded pyramidions were probably the only original elements to be exposed. Later, one of the obelisks was destroyed after all.

In all, Hatshepsut accomplished what no woman had before her. She ruled the most powerful, advanced civilization in the world, successfully, for twenty years. Even if there were some who resented her success, her success stands for all eternity."


http://www.bediz.com/hatshep/story.html

[ 20. October 2005, 17:53: Message edited by: Catapharact ]

Atlantea
20-10-05, 17:34
Oh, this is so interesting - I'm always fascinated by ancient cultures and such http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif
Of Hatshepsut I read and also saw a very good documentary which was narating her becoming the first woman-pharao and also her extraordinary achievements. And yes, she was very adamant in continuing her father's construction plans.

Catapharact
20-10-05, 17:46
Glad to see someone atlest pays attention to past civilizations LOL! Just that I find that these days, there has been a serious lack of interest in Historical findings and past civilizations. I find this most depressing.

She by far had a stronger grip on things than Nefertiti, and people consider her very influential next to Cleopetra http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif .

Atlantea
20-10-05, 17:58
Yes, I remember I was quite taken aback by what influence she had on her people and all the constructions that were done under her leadership.
Especially because I didn't see writings about her only later on.
It is great that finally her life and achievemnts start to be uncovered.

T.Onix
20-10-05, 19:18
What I loved about her was that she wanted to be treated as a man since she had a "man's job" not only about getting all the goodies that her job brought, but also the responsabilities and challenges it brought. The fact she was portrayed in sculptures with a beard was just icky.

Grenade
20-10-05, 19:44
Thanks Catapharact. I've never heard of her before. http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif

croft28
21-10-05, 00:59
I love Egyption history, Hatshepsut was my fav of the Pharoahs. She was one of our major topics in High school and i remember really enjoying learning about her.

Like T.Onyx said, the fact that she ruled as a man would rule made her rather fascinating.

Catapharact
21-10-05, 01:04
Yes it's by far facinating http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif . Few women in ancient history had that sort of influence.

T. Onyx, it is said that she purposely put on a fake Pharoh's beard to show that she was to be respected as a male ruler http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif .

Thorn
21-10-05, 01:10
That woman sure must have been amazing. It would've been an honor to meet such a successful person. http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif

Catapharact
21-10-05, 01:13
A definate role model http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif . Hmmm, maybe it's high time the U.S. elects a female President LOL!

It's what I have said before, history is filled with interesting people. Cleopetra, Hannibal, Atilla, Subotai, Saladin, Eric the Red... God, if only people would take the time to read :( .

[ 21. October 2005, 02:16: Message edited by: Catapharact ]

Catapharact
21-10-05, 01:20
Though this may be off topic:


Women Warriors in the Middle East

Zabibi and her successor Samsi reigned as Arabian warrior queens from approximately 740 to 720 BC. Both commanded armies containing large numbers of women.

Septima Zenobia governed Syria from about 250 to 275 AD. She led her armies on horseback wearing full armor and during Claudius' reign defeated the Roman legions so decisively that they retreated from much of Asia Minor. Arabia, Armenia and Persia allied themselves with her and she claimed dominion over Egypt by right of ancestry. Claudius' successor Aurelian sent his most experienced legions to conquer Zenobia but it took almost 4 years of battles and sieges before her capital city of Palmyra fell and Zenobia along with nine other martial queens of allied provinces were paraded through the streets of Rome in chains. Aurelian exiled Zenobia to Tibur. Her daughters married into influential Roman families and her line continued to be important in Roman politics for almost three centuries.

Mavia, was Queen of the Bedouin Saracens from 370 to 380 AD. She led her troops in defeating a Roman army then made a favorable peace and married her daughter to the Roman commander in chief of the eastern Emperor Valens.

Kahula, an Arabian army commander in the battle of Yermonks (circa 600 AD) joined her forces with those of another female commander, Wafeira. Together they turned back the Greek army.

Salaym Bint Malham is described by Rosalind Miles as a war leader who, "with an armoury of swords and daggers strapped round her pregnant belly fought in the ranks of Muhammad and his followers".

An 8th century religious leader, the Kahina, united the Byzantine and Berber forces against the invading Arab army. She maintained an independent Berber monarchy for many years before her death in battle against the Arabs.

African Women Warriors

Matriarchal warrior tribes and matrilineal tribal descent are a continuing theme in African history and in some cases survived into modern times. One of the great African warrior queens of the ancient world was Majaji, who led the Lovedu tribe which was part of the Ku****e Empire during the Ku****e's centuries long war with Rome. The empire ended in 350 AD when the Ku****e stronghold of Meroe fell to repeated Roman assaults. Majaji led her warriors in battle armed with a shield and spear and is believed to have died on the walls of Meroe.

The Egyptian warrior queens, descended from the royal house of Kush, included Ahotep, the 7 Cleopatras and Arsinoe II & III. They ruled Egypt and led her army and navy through Roman times. A succession of Ethiopian Queens and military leaders known as Candace were also descended from the Kush. The first Candace, leading an army mounted on war elephants, turned back Alexander's invasion of Ethiopia in 332 BC. In 30 BC Candace Amanirenas defeated an invasion by Patronius, the Roman governor of Egypt and sacked the city of Cyrene.

In 937 AD Judith, Queen of the Falash, attacked Axum, sacred capital of Ethiopia killing all the inhabitants including the descendants of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.

Through the 10th and 11th centuries the Hausa states (modern day Nigeria) were ruled by the Habe warrior queens: Kufuru, Gino, Yakumo, Yakunya, Walzana, Daura, Gamata, Shata, Batatume, Sandamata, Yanbamu, Gizirgizir, Innagari, Jamata, Hamata, Zama and Shawata. Centuries later Amina, daughter of Queen Turunku of the Songhai in mid-Niger ruled the Hausa empire from 1536 to 1573. She extended her nation's boundaries to the Atlantic coast, founded cities and personally led her army of 20,000 soldiers into battle.

Mbande Zinga was the sister and advisor of the king of Ngola (today Angola) and served a his representative in negotiating treaties with the Portuguese. She became queen when her brother died in 1624 and appointed women, including her two sisters Kifunji and Mukumbu, to all government offices. When the Portuguese broke the peace treaty she led her largely female army against them inflicting terrible casualties while also conquering nearby kingdoms in an attempt to build a strong enough confederation to drive the Portuguese out of Africa. She accepted a truce and then agreed to a peace treaty in 1635. She continued to rule her people and lived to be 81. When Angola became an independent nation in 1975 a street in Luanda was named in her honor.

Llinga, a warrior queen of the Congo armed with ax, bow and sword fought the Portuguese in 1640. Women warriors were common in the Congo where the Monomotapa confederacy had standing armies of women.

Kaipkire, warrior leader of the Herero tribe of southwest Africa in the 18th century led her people in battles against British slave traders. There are records of Herero women fighting German soldiers as late as 1919.

Nandi was the warrior mother of Shaka Zulu. She battled slave traders and trained her son to be a warrior. When he became King he established an all-female regiment which often fought in the front lines of his army.

Mantatisi, warrior queen of the baTlokwas in the early 1800s fought to preserve her tribal lands during the wars between Shaka Zulu and Matiwane. She succeeded in protecting the baTlokwas heritage although her son, who became King when she died, was eventually defeated by Mahweshwe.

Madame Yoko ruled and led the army of the fourteen tribes of the Kpa Mende Confederacy, the largest tribal group in 19th century Sierra Leone. At that time at least 15% of all the tribes in Sierra Leone were led by women, today approximately 9% have women rulers.

Menen Leben Amede was Empress of Ethopia. She commanded her own army and acted as regent for her son Ali Alulus. She was wounded and captured in a battle in 1847 but was ransomed by her son and continued to rule until 1853.

Seh-Dong-Hong-Beh, was a leader of the Dahomey Amazons under King Gezo. In 1851 she led an army of 6,000 women against the Egba fortress of Abeokuta. Because the Amazons were armed with spears, bows and swords while the Egba had European cannons only about 1,200 survived the extended battle. In 1892 King Behanzin of Dahomey (now Benin) was at war with the French colonists over trading rights. He led his army of 12,000 troops, including 2,000 Amazons into battle. Despite the fact that the Dahomey army was armed only with rifles while the French had machine guns and cannons, the Amazons attacked when the French troops attempted a river crossing, inflicting heavy casualties. They engaged in hand to hand combat with the survivors eventually forcing the French army to retreat. Days later the French found a bridge, crossed the river and defeated the Dahomey army after fierce fighting. The Amazons burned fields, villages and cities rather than let them fall to the French but merely delayed Dahomey being absorbed as a French colony.

In the late 19th century Mukaya, the leader of the Luba people of central Africa whose nation stretched along the rain forest from Zaire to northern Zambia, led her warriors in battle against enemy tribes and rival factions. Initially she fought alongside her brother Kasongo Kalambo, after he was killed in battle she assumed sole control of the empire and the army.

Nehanda (1862-1898) was a priestess of the MaShona nation of Zimbabwe. She became a military leader of her people when the British invaded her country. She led a number of successful attacks on the English but was eventually captured and executed.

Taytu Betul (1850-1918) was Empress of Ethopia. During her 14 year reign she established and named the modern capital of Addis Ababa, she led troops in battle and negotiated peace treaties. She retired from public life after the death of her husband.

Yaa Asantewaa (1850-1921) the Queen Mother of one of the Asante states of Ghana led her army in continuous battles against the British until her capture.


European Women Warriors

Women Crusaders

Women accompanied all the Crusades. The First Crusade (1096-1099) included almost equal numbers of men, women and children. The Papal Bull of 1189 prohibited women from joining the Third Crusade but was widely ignored. Some noble women, nuns and abbesses took Crusaders vows, others simply accompanied the armies and fought when their company was attacked.

Among the Queens known to have participated in the Crusades were Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of Castile, Marguerite de Provence, Florine of Denmark and Berengaria of Navarre.

Guilbert de Nogent writes in his history of the Crusades of "a troop of Amazons" who accompanied Emperor Conrad to Syria and of women Crusaders in the army of William, Count of Poitiers. Pope Boniface VIII wrote several letters in 1383 in which he mentioned Genoese ladies who were Crusaders.

Women Leaders and Defenders

Throughout the middle ages noble women vigorously, and often successfully, defended their own or their male relatives, lands and castles.

Around 890 AD Thyra, Queen of Denmark, ruled in her husband's absence. She led her army against the Germans who invaded Sleswick and Jutland and over a 3 year period built the Danneverke, a great wall which was Denmark's major defense for centuries and portions of which still exist.

In 945 Igor of Russia was killed by the Drevelians during a tax revolt. His wife, Olga, raised an army which attacked Drevelian strongholds forcing them to cease their revolt and pay taxes.

In 1075 Emma, Countess of Norfolk held Norwich Castle against repeated attack and siege. When it became evident that the castle could not be taken the Countess was offered safe conduct for herself, her troops and her possessions to join her husband who had fled to France. She accepted and relinquished the castle.

Urraca, Queen of Aragon became sole ruler of Leon-Castile in 1094 when her husband died. She married Alfonso of Aragon in 1098 and spent the remaining 13 years of her reign at war with him to protect the inheritance rights of her son by her first marriage. Both she and her half-sister Teresa who ruled in Portugal personally led their armies into battle.

In Italy, Alrude, Countess of Bertinoro, led an army to break the siege of Aucona in 1172. She forced the Imperial forces to abandon the siege and engaged in several battles on her return to her castle.

Nicola de la Haye, was the daughter of Baron de la Haye, hereditary castellan of Lincoln. She successfully defended the town against several rebel raids and in 1216 was made sheriff of Lincolnshire.

Jeanne of Navarre (1271-1304) ruler of Navarre, Brie and Champagne and wife of King Philip the Fair of France led her army against that of the Count de Bar when he attempted to rebel against her. Although Philip was entitled by marriage to claim rulership over Jeanne's lands he never did so.

In 1334 Lady Agnes Randolph, wife of Patrick, Earl of Dunbar and March, held the castle of Dunbar against the forces of the Earl of Salisbury for more than 5 months.

During the wars of Brittany in the mid 1300's, several women defended their lands on the battlefield. One of the best known was Jane, Countess of Montfort, who personally led her troops in defeating Charles of Blois at Hennebonne. She later fought a sea battle off the coast of Guernsey. Charles' wife, Jeanne de Penthierre, took to the battlefield to free him after he was taken prisoner by the English. Jeanne de Belleville, whose husband Oliver III of Clisson was beheaded by Charles of Blois, led her troops in sacking several towns loyal to Charles. She later obtained 3 ships from Edward III of England which she used to sink French merchant and military vessels. She kept her two young children with her on her military campaigns until she eventually retired and remarried.

Phillippa of Hainault, queen of Edward III of England, was named regent while he fought the French. In 1346 she led an army of 12,000 soldiers against the invading Scots and captured David Bruce, their king.

Margaret of Denmark (1353-1411) became ruler of Denmark and nominal Queen of Norway on the death of her son Olaf II in 1387. Denmark, Norway and Sweden were at war and Margaret led her armies against key cities and fortresses, eventually forcing the Swedes and Norwegians to withdraw from Denmark. She was elected Queen of Norway in 1388. The following year she was offered the Swedish throne after she defeated the Swedish king and took him prisoner. She persuaded the Diets of the three countries to accept her grand-nephew, Eric of Pomerania, as heir to their thrones. In 1397 she forged the Calmar Union, uniting the three nations under a single monarchy and becoming the most powerful ruler in Scandinavian history.

Jacqueline of Bavaria, Countess of Holland, Hainault and Zealand (1402-1437) became ruler of her lands when her father died on May 13, 1417. Her most powerful vassal, the lord of Arkell, rebelled against the rule of a 15 year old woman and led a revolt to overthrow her, laying siege to the fortified city of Gorkum. Jacqueline led an army of 300 ships and 6,000 knights to relieve Gorkum. She personally led her reserve troops in a charge against the castle gate and defeated Arkell's forces.

In 1429 Isabella of Lorraine led an army to free her husband Rene, Duke of Anjou, who had been imprisoned by the Duke of Burgundy. She later took to the field to fight for Rene's recognition as King of Sicily. Her daughter Margaret of Anjou (1430-1482) married Henry VI of England and defended the Lancastrians during the War of the Roses. Leading her armies she defeated both the Duke of York and the Earl of Warwick. In 1471 she landed at Weymouth expecting to join her forces with those of Jasper Tudor, but his army was delayed and Margaret's greatly outnumbered forces were defeated at Tewkesbury. She fled the battlefield on foot carrying her infant son and eventually escaped with him to Flanders. She raised a new army and returned to England where she fought for a number of years before being captured by the Yorkists, who allowed Louis XI of France to ransom her after obtaining her oath that she would cease fighting.

Isabella I of Castile (1451-1504), wife of Ferdinand of Aragon and queen regent of Spain, who sponsored Columbus' voyage and brought the Inquisition to her country, led her armies into battle early in her reign to protect her succession. Later during the conquest of the Moors, she sometimes rode into battle or mounted sieges with and without Ferdinand, but she was better known as a genius at military tactics and supplying armies in the field.

In 1524 the King of France and the Constable de Bourbon were at war. The King's armies laid siege to Marseilles. Ameliane du Puget, the governor's daughter, led a troop of women who broke the siege. They dug a mined trench known as the Tranchee des Dames which became the modern day Boulevard des Dames.

Lady Ann Cummingham led a cavalry troop of men and women in the Battle of Berwick on June 5, 1639.

In 1643 during the English Civil War, Blanche the Countess of Arundel, defended Wardour Castle against a Parliamentarian army while Brilliana the Countess of Harley, who was pregnant at the time, defended Brampton Castle against the King's army.

[ 21. October 2005, 02:30: Message edited by: Catapharact ]

lorien elf
21-10-05, 02:04
ok, I'm going to say this first and then read: oh my gosh, Catapharact! I could so jump on you and hug you to death, or something! hahahaha, I dont know but I read a book about Hatshepsut not long ago when I was really really interested in Egypt and of course it was a major plus the female warrior and only female pharaoh of Egypt! I read the best book of fiction on her, ever written imo, Child of the Morning, by Pualine Gedge. me thinks that's right without checking. that's got to be my most favorite non-religious work of fiction, ever! it's the greatest and then there's the Memoirs of Cleopatra by Margaret George. and The Forgotten Queen, I think that's it, by Elizabeth Garwood. hehe, I love reading about ancient female warriors! I have a non-fiction book about it at home that I think examines myths and stuff like that so of course it talks about Queen Mab and other cool women like that. One of my favorites might have been from um maybe the Mongolians in the 13th century, not sure since havent read the book in a while. this is awesome. *big hugs* !!!

lorien elf
21-10-05, 02:31
hehe, me being a bit more normal: this is awesome, thanks for the information, Catapharact. I mean, tis cool to see that you've gathered so much to share here and that you must have known so much of it anyway. I was very surprised to learn that some women had participated in the Crusades, very neat. And I didnt know all that about the African women warrior Queens and not. that's so very cool. And I didnt even know much of the women who fought in various battles in Europe. pretty neat, tis. ;) http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif

Atlantea
21-10-05, 06:34
Wow, very interesting read - I didn't know a lot of the information posted about women warriors.
Thanks Catapharact http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/thumb.gif

Catapharact
21-10-05, 16:06
Wow... it's really wonderful to see many who have an interest in history http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif .

It's far from the usual stereotype of boring Lireture.

I actually kinda find it insulting that major figures from history such as women and certain cutures aren't even mentioned. That's why it's imperitive to question everything http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif .

Angel_14
21-10-05, 18:19
I Knew, who was Hatshepsut, because I saw her mummy...

Anubis_AF
22-10-05, 10:38
Very interesting. Thanks Catapharact http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif

croft28
23-10-05, 01:01
I dont know how people cant be interested in history. I was talking about how important it is to study old civilizations with this girl at Uni one day, she said something like "Oh i dont know why we bother studying past history, its all about the future now, we should consentrate on that".
I found it so strange for someone to say that......this is our history, as human beings, what weve done, how we shaped the world, we learn so much from it.

Very odd thing to say.

Catapharact
23-10-05, 11:46
*Kisses Croft28's hand.*

I think I found my forum double ;) :D LOL!

By far that statement there should be ineveryone's minds. Past civilizations influenced the cultures of today. Some may argue, there were elements that surpass that of the modern world. But how can anyone find them out if they don't take the time to study it?

lorien elf
23-10-05, 20:48
OH yeah, that has bothered me that some ppl think that history can be dismissed, as if it's unimportant. how silly! history is what has shaped who we are today. it is how we've become what we are today. I mean, it's always relevant. and can always be repeated. heh, I could go on and on about that one little thing.

Atlantea
24-10-05, 04:00
Yes, of course, in order to expect something concrete about the future, one must understand the past, learn from both the achievements and the mistakes humans did across time. We need a backbone on which to build on, and that's our history; without understanding it, everything we try to construct is like a castle of sand - perishing in the first wind.
I guess today's disinterest in history comes from the superficiality that sadly governs everything and affects young generations.

croft28
24-10-05, 05:14
Has anyone here ever been to Egypt?.......i would really love to go one day.

Catapharact
24-10-05, 13:27
Yep http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif . Well unfortunately it wasn't near the Giza Plateau so pyramids *Sigh.*

However I did have a chance to have a good visit at Alexandria.

Along the way near Abusir, we decided to have a little boating run. I was tired so I just fell asleep.

Caught int he awkward moment LOL!

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v305/Catapharact/Flyboy.jpg

Just for those who are interested, here are a few shots of what the libraray at Alexandria may have looked like:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Alexandria-sagan.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Alexandria-sagan2.jpg

xMiSsCrOfTx
24-10-05, 13:34
Originally posted by croft28:
Has anyone here ever been to Egypt?.......i would really love to go one day. I would too, my school's Senior Trip might take us there, or it might take us to Greece. But either would be fantastic.

Personally, I'm very interested in ancient Egypt and its history, thanks for posting this amazing information, Catapharact! http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/thumb.gif

Catapharact
24-10-05, 13:40
Going to Greece would be a total blessing :D LOL! Lately, I have been in constant search of connections between the Mediterrianian and the Middle Eastern Rural pasts. You would be surprised in how much they are realted http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif .

You are welcome xMiSsCrOfTx http://www.tombraiderforums.com/images/smilies/smile.gif .